4 Cancer Stages (Cancer Staging)
What is Cancer Staging????
Staging is a method of describing the cancer size ( a spread of cancer) and how fast it has grown. If Doctor Recognized cancer, then first they check the 4 stages of cancer. Based on the cancer staging, Doctor starts treatment of cancer. The doctoralso checks cancer stage to known whether it spread to other part of body.
System of cancer staging can also include cancer grading that describes the similarity between cancer cell and normal cell.
Important of cancer staging
Stages of cancer are very important, which help in cancer treatment. If Doctor found cancer in only place, then a local treatment like radiotherapy or surgery is enough to remove cancer completely. With the help of local treatment, doctor can treat only one area of body.
If cancer spread to the other part of your body, then the local treatment does not allow. Patients will required a treatment which, go thoughts the entire body. There are systemic treatment for this stage such as hormone therapy, biological therapy and also chemotherapy as they circulate in bloodstream.
4 Cancer staging
In some case doctors are not sure that cancer is spread to other part of body or not. In this situation they check the lymph nodes close to cancer cells. If cancer cell is in these nodes, then it is symptoms of cancer which start to spread. Cancer specialist doctor call this situation have positive lymph nodes. A cell was broken away from the original cancer and got trapped in lymph nodes. However, it is not possible at all time to tell if they have gone somewhere also.
Generally doctors suggest adjuvant treatment, if the cancer cell found in lymph nodes, which means treatment beside the treatment for the major primary tumour. The main aim is to destroy any cancer cells which have broken away from the main tumor.
Types of Cancer stages
There are two major type of cancer staging. This Staging of Cancer is TNM system and number system. System is general language which doctor use to explain the spread and size of cancer. The treatment result can precisely compared research studies. Treatment guidelines can standardised between various treatment clinics and hospital. So cancer like lymph system cancers or blood cancers have their own cancer staging systems.
TNM cancer staging system
Tumour, Node and Metastasis is known as TNM. It shows the size of primary tumour (initial cancer) where the cancer spread to the lymph nodes. In fact, it spread to a various part of body. In this, system is use number to show the cancer.
- T: T is known as cancer size and how fast the cancer cells spread into nearby tissue. T can be 1,2,3 or 4, where 1 is starting and 4 is Large.
- N: N is known as cancer that spread to lymph node. N can be between ) to 3, where 0 is no lymph nodes including cancer cells and 3 is may lymph nodes including cancer cells.
- M: M is known as cancer which spread to other portion of body. M can be 0 or 1, where 0 is cancer that is not spread and 1 is cancer caner was spread.
How to decribe TNM stages of cancer
For example, a cancer which spread to the lymph nodes, but not to other part of body can be T2 N1 MO. Cancer spread in entire body can be T4 N3 M1.
In some case, doctor may use letter like a, b and c to divide cancer in further categories. Such as M1a lung cancer means cancer had spread to other lung and M1b lung cancer, which means cancer spread to other part of body.
Sometime, doctor also use p letter before TNM such as pT4 which stands for pathological stage, which means that cancer staging is based on the cancer cell’s examination in lab after the cancer cells removing surgery.
Letter c also used before TNM to classify cancer such as cT2, which stands for clinical stage that means stage. This stage is according to what doctors know about cancerous cells before surgery. It is on the basis of clinical information from examining patient and look at patient’s test result.
Number cancer staging system
It is general use of TNM system to split cancer in different stages. Generally cancer contains 4 stages, which numbered from 1 to 4. In fact, doctor write download the stages in Roman numerals.
- Stage 1: Generally, stage 1 means cancer is comparatively small and also included within the organ it initiated in.
- Stage 2: Stage 2 mean had not initiated to spread in nearby cell; nut the tumor is bigger than stage 1. In some case, a cancer cell has spread into lymph nodes. It depends on the cancer type.
- Stage 3: It means that the cancer is larger. It already initiated to spread into around the tissues and also the cancer cells found in lymph nodes in the area.
- Stage 4: In stage 4 cancers spread to the other part of body organ. It also known as metastatic or secondary cancer.
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