Mesothelioma Signs Symptoms Causes and Treatment
Today, discuss about the Facts about Mesothelioma Signs Symptoms Causes and Treatment, below is the all details about Mesothelioma. So, let’s start with the important fact about Mesothelioma.
Facts about Mesothelioma
Before jumping onto knowing about what is Mesothelioma. Let us have a quick look at the key facts about Mesothelioma.
- Mesothelioma is typically a form of cancer that arises from the chest lining cells or abdominal cavities.
- It can usually result from asbestos exposure.
- When Mesothelioma affects chest, the doctor looks inside the chest cavity with thoracosope, which is a special instrument.
- When Mesothelioma is affecting your abdomen, the doctor can look inside their abdomen with a tool called perintoneoscope.
- Mesothelioma Signs can also diagnose with the help of biopsy.
- The patients with Mesothelioma and their outlook depends on how early the disease detected. And how aggressively it can treat.
What is Mesothelioma? – Meaning of Mesothelioma
As discover above, Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer that can arise from the cell lining on the chest or the abdomen. Among this, pleural Mesothelioma is a common form that represents through the symptoms on the chest area. Whereas peritoneal Mesothelioma is less common form, that affects the organs of abdomen. Mesothelioma Signs are related to that area of the body particularly. And it show abdominal swelling, vomiting, and nausea and bowel destruction. The third and rarest form of Mesothelioma is the pericardial Mesothelioma involving sac, surrounded by our heart.
There are also two major cell types of Mesothelioma, namely sarcomatoid and epithelial. Sometimes it may happen that both if these types of cells can be present. The sarcomatoid is the rarer one among the two and can occur only in about 15% of cases, portending a poorer prognosis. Similarly in very much rare cases, the Mesothelioma can originate from benign and non-malignant cells. These are the so called benign Mesothelioma that can cure through surgery.
What are the symptoms of mesothelioma?
Mesothelioma Signs: Shortness of breath is one of the common complaints from many patients. They commonly also complains for chest pain as well as cough. The patients can also be asymptomatic, where the diseases can be discover with the help of physical exam or an abnormal X-Ray of their chests.
As there is the progression in their diseases, the shortness of breath also increases, along with developed signs of weight loss, decreased appetite, night sweats and more. Local invasion by the tumor can also result in voice change, loss of diaphragm functions and other such Mesothelioma Signs that are specific to the area and involvement of the connected structures.
What causes mesothelioma?
Causes of mesothelioma – Most people suffering from malignant mesothelioma have worked on such jobs where they would have breathed in asbestos. This cause however affects largely to the men over 40 years of age. On the other hand, others would have been exposed to asbestos in household environment, without even realising about it.
Since 1983 the number of cases of mesothelioma has been quite stable, it was the same time there were the restrictions on asbestos as institute by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). However in Europe, the number of new cases for mesothelioma continues to rise.
How much asbestos exposure does it take to get mesothelioma?
You will be surprised to know that as much little exposure as of one or two months can result into mesothelioma cancer 30 or 40 years later, or in some cases it was even reported after 70 years too.
How long does it take after asbestos exposure for mesothelioma to show up?
Once you exposed to it, you might wonder as to how much time it takes for asbestos to show up. People that diagnosed in 1940, 50s, 60s and 70s are even now being diagnosed with mesothelioma because of the long latency period of asbestos disease.
How is mesothelioma diagnosed?
Mesothelioma can also be diagnosed by pathological examination from biopsy. The tissue is removed and then placed under microscope until the pathologist makes a definite diagnosis and issues a pathology report. This is the end of the entire process that began initially with the symptoms that send them to doctor to get answers. Also there is buildup around lungs, pain in chest, shortness in breath and swelling and pain in abdomen.
To check the pleural Mesothelioma Signs doctor test with their special instrument inside the chest cavity. It is called as thoracosope. For this doctor put the cut on chest and then put the thoracosope inside between the two ribs. This surgery is only performed by the doctors at the hospital along with the help of anaesthetic. If they found the fluid inside your body then they have to drain outside with the help of the needle putting into your chest. And with the help of gentle suction they remove the fluid which is thoracentesis.
Particularly for peritoneal mesothelioma, the doctor uses a special tool called peritoneoscope. This tool is put therefore in the opening that made in the abdomen. Usually this test takes place in a hospital under an anesthetic. Similarly if doctor found collection of fluid in your abdomen, doctor would drain it all out using a needle into abdomen. With the help of gentle suction the doctor is able to remove the fluid from your abdomen. Therefore it’s known as paracentesis.
The third diagnosis is the biopsy which used when there are findings of abnormal tissues. The doctor will then cut out a small piece and have a look under it in a microscope. This can usually be done with Peritoneoscopy or with a Thoracoscopy. But only during surgery. However in some of the cases there are tumors cells that can grow along the tract where there is biopsy, which can also be minimise with the use of radiation to the area.
What is the prognosis for mesothelioma?
Alike most of the cancers, the diseases’ prognosis can often depends on factors such as how early the disease diagnose and how graduating can it treat. But unfortunately for mesothelioma signs often diagnosed at the stage. Where it is almost incurable. That is why the majority of the patients succumb to this disease within one year of its diagnosis.
Mesothelioma treatment options
Here the treatment of mesothelioma depends on the stage that it has reached, and knowing as to what extent the tumor has spread inside the body. There are currently three staging systems in use for mesothelioma, where each stage can offer different variables.
One of the oldest staging systems and commonly used one is the Butchart system. Based mainly on the primary tumor mass extent and thus divide mesothelioma into four stages.
Butchart system extent of primary tumor mass
Stage 1 – Mesothelioma exists in right or left pleura and may or may not involve the diaphragm on the same side.
Stage 2 – It invades the chest walls and can also involve the esophagus; pleura on side, heart and even the lymph nodes in the chest might be involved.
Stage 3 – Mesothelioma penetrates through diaphragm into the abdominal cavity lining or peritoneum. Lymph nodes beyond those in the chest may also involve.
Stage 4 – There is an evidence of metastasis, or known as the spread, through the bloodstream to other organs of your body.
Even though this is the oldest form of staging the cancer, there have reportedly been sightings for new staging that may vary from studies to studies, however holding onto the fact of measuring the disease with the consideration of what your doctors and their practices are. Two of the other ways to stage the mesothelioma cancer are TNM system and Brigham, one of which is mention here.
Brigham system – Variables of tumor resectability and nodal status
Stage 1 – Resectable mesothelioma where there is no lymph node involvement
The Stage 2– Resectable mesothelioma existing with lymph node involvement
Stage 3 – Unresectable mesothelioma extending into the chest wall, or through diaphragm, , heart, peritoneum; with or without the involvement of extrathoracic lymph-node
Stage 4 – Distant metastatic disease
Now that we know about the stages of mesothelioma cancer. Let us now know about the treatment of mesothelioma in detail varying for each stage and their diagnosis.
What is the treatment for mesothelioma?
The treatment for mesothelioma includes the traditional kinds of treatment with patients having malignant mesothelioma. There are often two or more these which can combine with the course of treatment.
- Surgery to take out the cancer
- Radiation therapy using high doses of X-rays and other high energy rays to kill cancer cells.
- Chemotherapy with the help of drugs to fight cancer.
The radiation therapy includes he high energy X-rays to kill cancer cells and also to shrink tumors. Radiation come from the outside machine to the body. It’s known as external radiation therapy. Whereas the internal radiation therapy includes putting material that generates radiation with a plastic tube in the area where there are cancer cells.
However if the fluid gets collected in the abdomen or chest, your doctor drain out all the fluid by putting a needle in your abdomen or chest. And get all the liquid out of your system, along with gentle suction. The fluid removed from chest it’s called thoracentesis. And when it comes out of abdomen, it’s called paracentesis. Even the doctor can put the tube in the chest to prevent more fluid more gathering.
chemotherapy to kill cancer cell
On the other hand the chemotherapy used to kill cancer cells. The chemotherapy can be a pill or a process where there might be a needle in the muscle or vein of the patients’ body.
Chemotherapeutic agents administered systematically through the bloodstream or even in intrapleurally, through the pleural cavity. Even when it’s administered intrapleurally, the site of the tumor where the treatment localised. These drugs are also very toxic and therefore you should discuss their usage very carefully with your doctor or physician.
Is there any promising research or are there promising drugs for mesothelioma?
New approaches being studied
Currently many new approaches and researches tested out in order. To find the cure of malignant mesothelioma. Often they use to combine the traditional methods along with something that is entirely new, to find new results. Here are some of the following treatments:
- L- NDDP Platar – Intrapleural administration of the platinum product designed to overcome the toxicity and drug resistance. That is currently limiting the usefulness of Cisplatin, a platinum drug.
- Endostatin have also shown to work with angiostatin which destroys the tumours’ ability to grow blood vessels without doing harm to the normal cells.
- Lovastatin is one of the cholesterol drugs that have been shown in the recent study. Lovastatin was to potentially inhibit the cell growth of mesothelioma cancer growth.
- The intrapleural gamma is one of the direct administrations of the anti-cancer drug interferon gamma.
- Photodynamic therapy on the other hand is able to kill off the cancer cells with the help of energy of light.
- Immunotherapy is the way to treat cancer by helping the immune system to strengthen itself and fight the disease.
- Gene therapy on the other hand can treat cancer with the help of correcting the genetic deficits. It can allow the tumor to develop.
Various Researches details
Many different and various researches have been undergone throughout the United States to get to the cure of the mesothelioma cancer. Even a recent study that involved L-NDDP produced for itself two cases of remission in the patients of mesothelioma. Another study, on the other hand, found that a drug names Lovastatin can hold the promise to cure for the mesothelioma patients.
Now that you know how progressive the research for this cancer is going. It may bring out the results pretty much sooner than expected. So, you don’t need to worry if you diagnosed with cancer, especially mesothelioma.