Neutropenia causes treatment option and neutropenia diagnose
We are addressing a health condition, called Neutropenia. You will find everything about Neutropenia, symptoms of Neutropenia, causes of Neutropenia, treatment of Neutropenia and diagnosis of Neutropenia. Neutropenia is a health condition, in which number of neutrophils, type of white blood cell, decreases in the bloodstream which affects your body’s ability to fight off infections. Here is the detail about Neutropenia causes treatment option and neutropenia diagnose.
Neutropenia defined as an absolute neutrophil count less than 1500 per microliter. It may be caused and associated with numerous medical conditions, arising into Neutropenia. Most of the infections occurring through Neutropenia are due to bacteria normally present on the skin, on or the gastrointestinal or urinary tract. Treatment of Neutropenia depends on the severity and cause as well as on the underlying disease state that is responsible for neutropenia.
Neutropenia causes treatment option and neutropenia diagnose details
What is neutropenia?
As mention earlier, it is a condition in which the numbers of neutrophils in bloodstream decreases. The neutropenia (a type of white blood cells) also known as polymorphonuclear leukocytes or PMNs. It also reduces the natural of your body to fight off the bacterial infections that might come your way. The white blood cells are known as leukocytes. However,there are five other major types of circulating white blood cells, which are:
- Lymphocytes (T-cells and B-cells,
- Monocytes and
Some of the white blood cells called the granulocytes are filled with microscopic granules that are little sacs that contain enzymes. Basophils, Eosinophils and basophiles are a part of the innate immune system with nonspecific and broad based theory. However they don’t respond exclusively to specific antigens such as lymphocytes do.
Neutrophils on the other hand contain enzymes which kill and digest microorganisms it acquired in the process called phagocytosis. Matured Neutrophil have segmented nucleus whereas the immature Neutrophil have a band shaped nucleus. Therefore the Neutrophils made in bone marrow and released in the bloodstream. And the Neutrophils have a life span of around 3 days.
How to defined neutropenia?
The WBC count is the number of white blood cell count in a volume of blood. The normal range of WBC slightly varies from between 4300 and 10800 cells per microliter or cubic millimetre. The WBC can also refer as the leukocyte count expressed in international units as 4.3 x 109to 10.8 x 109 cells per litre. The percentage of all the several types of different white blood cells in the WBC is known as the WBC differential.
However, the ANC – Absolute Neutrophil Count determined by the product of WBC and the fraction of neutrophils among the blood cells determine by WBC differential analysis. Neutropenia can be further classified as:
- Mild – the ANC ranges from 1000-1500/microL,
- Moderate – ANC of 500-1000/microL, and
- Severe – the ANC is below 500/microL.
Here are also some of the other medical terms that used synonymously with neutropenia even though their practice definitions are different.
- Leukopenia refers to a number reduce of white blood cells in general while gyranulocytopenia refer to as a decreased number of all the granulocyte type blood cells.
- Since neutrophils normally far outnumber the other types of granulocytes, this term if sometimes refer as neutropenia.
- Lastly, agranulocytosis is generally referred to as a complete absence of all granulocytes. Sometimes this term used to refers to some severe neutropenia.
What are the clinical consequences of neutropenia?
Neutropenia can result into increased susceptibility of bacterial infections. The degree of risk depends on the cause, severity of neutropenia and the underlying medical conditions of the particular patient. Also the presence of bone marrow reserves for the production of neutrophils. The most common types of infections found in the neutropenia patients are the result of bacteria, which normally found on the skin, urinary tract or from gastrointestinal.
Frequently, the Fungal infections found in patients with neutropenia. These infections may be limited to certain areas of the body or spread via the bloodstream to the lungs. It can also spread to other organs in the cases of severe and prolonged neutropenia.
What causes Neutropenia?
Though it is uncommon, neutropenia can be present in the normal healthy individuals and also in some people of African, Arabic and Yemenite Jews. It arises as a result of the decreased production of neutrophils, destruction of neutrophils after they produced or pooling of those. It can therefore occur as a result of numerous medical conditions:
- Viral infections (most commonly), bacterial and parasitic infections. For example: HIV, tuberculosis, Epstein Barr virus, malaria and similar others.
- Medications that might be damaging the bone marrow or neutrophils including cancer chemotherapy.
- Vitamin deficiency (B12 or folate)
- Diseases of bone marrow such as leukemias and myelodysplastic syndrome.
- Radiation therapy
- Congenital disorders of bone marrow function or of neutrophil function
- Autoimmune destruction of neutrophils
- Hypersplenism, which means the increased sequestration or destruction of blood cells by the spleen
How to diagnosed neutropenia?
Neutropenia diagnosed by a blood cell count perform on a sample of blood remove from a vein. Doctors required other testes, to determine the specific cause of neutropenia in a given situation. Sometimes a bone marrow biopsy required to diagnose the specific cause of neutropenia.
How is neutropenia treated?
The treatment for neutropenia depend on the underlying cause, severity and presence of associated infections as well as the overall health status of the patients. The treatment must direct towards the underlying disease process. The treatments that directly deal with neutropenia are:
- Antibiotic and/or fungal medications to help fight infections
- Administration of the white blood cells growth factors in some of the severe causes of neutropenia
- Granulocyte transfusions
- Corticosteroid therapy or intravenous immune globulin for some of the cases of immune mediated neutropenia.
It’s important for some of the preventive measures to appoint to the patients in order to limit the risk of infections. These measures might include strict attention to the use of private rooms, hand washing, or in some cases, use of gloves, face masks, gowns by caregivers.
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